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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

What's Happening At Dash? | Continually Updated News & Announcements Thread

Welcome to dashpay!
If you are new to Dash, we encourage you to check out our wiki, where the Dash project is explained from the ground up with many links to valuable information resources. Also check out the menu bar on top and the sidebar to the right. We have very active Discord and Telegram channels where the community is happy to answer any and all newcomer questions.

Purpose of this post

This post is directed towards community members who wish to rapidly access information on current developments surrounding the Dash cryptocurrency.
Lately we've noticed how the pace of events picked up significantly within the Dash project due to many years of hard work coming together and pieces falling into place ("Evolution" is finally here. It's called Dash Platform). For the purpose of keeping these many pieces of information together, however, singular Reddit submissions are insufficient. Thus we decided to maintain a pinned thread collecting blog posts, interviews, articles, podcasts, videos & announcements. Check back regularly, as this thread will always feature the latest news around Dash, while also serving as a mid-term archive for important announcements and developments.
Journalists looking for news and contact opportunities wrt Dash, please bookmark:

Dash Press Room

"At Dash Press Room you will find the latest press releases, media materials and product updates on Dash - Digital Cash."

Dash Platform Video Series (formerly known as "Evolution") with Amanda B. Johnson

  1. Dash is Becoming a Cloud | Dash Platform #1
  2. What is Dash Drive? | Dash Platform #2
  3. What is Dash's Decentralized API? (DAPI) | Dash Platform #3
  4. Usernames & Dash Platform Name Service (DPNS) | Dash Platform #4
  5. What is Dash Platform Protocol? (DPP) | Dash Platform #5

Dash Core Group News

(last updated: Oct 30th, 2020)

Dash Newsroom with Mark Mason & Dash Talk with Amanda B. Johnson

(last updated: Oct 30th, 2020)

Development news

(last updated: Oct 30th, 2020)

Adoption, Partnership, Business Development, General News

(last updated: Oct 30th, 2020)
submitted by Basilpop to dashpay [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Gold a Shitcoin Vulnerable to Attack Despite $200 Million Market Cap

Bitcoin Gold a Shitcoin Vulnerable to Attack Despite $200 Million Market Cap

https://preview.redd.it/vddehe8qfo321.png?width=690&format=png&auto=webp&s=44a4111dddd126729769612bd27e1ebc30753e14
https://cryptoiq.co/bitcoin-gold-a-shitcoin-vulnerable-to-attack-despite-200-million-market-cap/
The War On Shitcoins Episode 1: Bitcoin Gold (BTG). The war on shitcoins is a Crypto.IQ series that targets and shoots down cryptocurrencies that are not worth investing in either due to their being scams, having serious design flaws, being centralized, or in general just being worthless copies of other cryptocurrencies. There are thousands of shitcoins that are ruining the markets, and Crypto.IQ intends to expose all of them. The crypto space needs an exorcism, and we are happy to provide it.
There are more than 2,000 cryptocurrencies listed on CoinMarketCap, and Bitcoin Gold (BTG) is near the top at number 25 with a market cap of $207 million. This would seem to indicate that Bitcoin Gold is a major cryptocurrency, but it is simply a copycat of Bitcoin with one key and debilitating difference that makes it worse than Bitcoin. Bitcoin Gold is designed to block ASIC miners, leaving only GPU miners.
The idea was that GPU miners would rally around Bitcoin Gold since GPU Bitcoin miners were disenfranchised by ASIC miners years ago. Ultimately, this decision to only allow GPUs resulted in such a low mining hash rate that Bitcoin Gold is vulnerable to 51 percent attacks, and a serious 51 percent attack has already happened once. Further, Bitcoin Gold has had centralization problems from the very beginning.
When Bitcoin Gold launched in November 2017 the developers did a massive premine of 8,000 blocks, which yielded them about 100,000 BTG. At today’s price $12 this is $1.2 million, and when BTG’s price peaked near $500, this was $50 million. This premine is unfair to other BTG miners, traders, and investors. Supposedly, the premined BTG were placed in an “endowment,” which means the developers will receive all of that money eventually, just not all at once. There is no way to verify if this is even true, however, and the excessive 97 percent BTG price crash since January 2018 might be partially due to developers dumping their coins.
A far more serious issue than the premine is BTG’s lack of network security. BTG made mining ASIC resistant by using the Equishash Proof of Work (PoW) algorithm. However, ASICs were eventually developed for Equihash since ASICs can be developed for any PoW algorithm. In May 2018 a 51 percent double spend attack occurred on the Bitcoin Gold network, and a hacker stole $18.6 million from cryptocurrency exchanges that listed BTG. This caused the developers to hard fork in order to implement a newer version of Equihash that is supposedly more ASIC resistant. Clearly, the developers did not learn their lesson that there is no ASIC-resistant PoW algorithm. If Bitcoin Gold became valuable enough, someone would produce an ASIC for it.
It is unclear if Equihash ASICs were the reason for the 51 percent attack, since an attacker could literally just rent some hash rate on a cloud mining site and successfully 51 percent attack Bitcoin Gold. Currently it only takes 1.6 MH/s of rented mining power to successfully perform a double spend attack on the Bitcoin Gold network, and this costs about $1,000 per hour if the hash rate is rented from NiceHash.
Effectively, Bitcoin Gold is not cryptographically secure. The original purpose of banning ASIC miners so that GPU miners could thrive ended up being a fatal flaw for Bitcoin Gold. It is ridiculous that major exchanges like Binance and Bitfinex still offer BTG trading. This is a true disservice to the users of these exchanges and is a risk for the exchanges themselves.
Crypto users need to educate themselves thoroughly before buying any cryptocurrency, or they could end up buying a shitcoin like Bitcoin Gold just because it has a high ranking on CoinMarketCap. BTG has already lost 97 percent of its value since January 2018, and there is strong potential for it to become completely worthless once someone decides to rent some hash power and perform a vicious 51 percent attack.
submitted by turtlecane to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

08-16 21:54 - 'LMAO [link] : / Hello, Im a 14 year old kid (@LightningNetwo9 on twitter) who managed to overtake binance official website. Im sorry for causing some fear. / Binance is the best exchange in crypto space. This hack d...' by /u/reclamerommelenzo removed from /r/Bitcoin within 109-119min

'''
LMAO [link]1 :
Hello, Im a 14 year old kid (@LightningNetwo9 on twitter) who managed to overtake binance official website. Im sorry for causing some fear.
Binance is the best exchange in crypto space. This hack does not change anything. 0$ were stolen not a single data was compromised and everything is fine.
Im currently in a huge need of money. Hopefully there are some people who are thankful that I did not abuse this so I will leave this.
BTC: 16rVQ7ftZFQo8Yv6XXdcTDH6G8iJJqmoMH
ETH: 0x709c7e5A9ab10600e1B4409bc9Be759F195f0E3E
Ps @cz_binance you can contact me on twitter @LightningNetwo9 I got some information that you might be interested in.
'''
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unreddit undelete link
Author: reclamerommelenzo
1: bi*ance.*e
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⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 17 - June 24 ⚜️

⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 17 - June 24 ⚜️

https://preview.redd.it/8g77en9nxw631.jpg?width=890&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=12ad7865e16e9cc0e925ee9778518ac63f166f47

Good day, dear clients! 👋🏼👩🏼

Cryptocurrency continues to please us with high volatility against the backdrop of continued growth.
The arbitrage robot continues to show high levels of yield already few week in a row.
And for now there are no reasons to consider that from the point of view of the dynamics of the market something will change. We continue to observe.

💰 Yield for 17.06 - 24.06:

▫️Bitcoin - 1,68 %
▫️Ethereum - 1,50 %
▫️Ripple - 1,42 %
▫️Neo - 2,00 %

With Respect,
Team Arbitrage-Systems ♥️
#arbitrage #cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #btc #ethereum #eth#binance #bnb #eos #neo #bitfinex #huobi #bitmex
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⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 10 - June 17 ⚜️

⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 10 - June 17 ⚜️

https://preview.redd.it/aa6bdb82wb531.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4e0e3e1725a3563823a0fd13794ce91b6400c436

Good day, dear clients! 👋🏼👩🏼

Cryptocurrency continues to show high volatility. And our arbitrage bot shows a very good yield.
What should especially please our clients is that this profitability from arbitrage is combined with the rise in the price of cryptocurrency.
This week almost all coins showed the best yeild. Again, the leader was NEO. The only exception is Ripple, which this time showed the worst yeild. But still, the yield is better than the average this year.

💰 Yield for 10.06 - 17.06:

▫️ Bitcoin - 0,92 %
▫️ Ethereum - 1,23 %
▫️ Ripple - 1,22 %
▫️ Neo - 1,68 %

With Respect,
Team Arbitrage-Systems ♥️

#arbitrage #cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #btc #ethereum #eth#binance #bnb #eos #neo #bitfinex #huobi #bitmex
submitted by Arbitrage-Systems to u/Arbitrage-Systems [link] [comments]

Crypto Wallet

Crypto Wallet Guide
Humans have come a long way from the barter trading (trading goods without using the money) to gold, then later to paper currency and now we have arrived in the age of digital currency.
There are more than 2000 cryptocurrencies in the world with a market capitalization of around $175 billion, it is necessary to know about them. Where these currencies are stored? How does the crypto wallet work? If You are still reading this, it says you are a beginner and want to explore the crypto world.
To understand the crypto concept, first, know about the crypto wallets.
What Is Cryptocurrency Wallet?
A cryptocurrency wallet is a software program used to store, send, receive private and public keys and can be used to track ownership. It enables you to send and receive digital coins through blockchain. Wallets are a necessary factor for investing and owning cryptocurrencies of any sort.
However, Some wallets are built for a single cryptocurrency( bitcoin and coins forked from bitcoin like bitcoin cash), some can be used for more than one coin(multi cryptocurrency wallet), some wallets you’ll manage yourself, and some will be custodial.
What Are Public & Private Keys?
A public key is a unique identifier for a person and a private key is like a password similar to an ATM pin. A sender will require the public key of the receiver to send him the cryptocurrency and the receiver will be able to access and use these cryptocurrencies by using the private key. A private key must be protected in order to avoid fraudulent activities such as hacking, stealing of cryptocurrencies, etc.
A public key can be extracted from a private key, but a private key can never be extracted from a public key.
A private key should always be kept safe. Exposing it would be vulnerable for various hacks and stealing of the coins by with whom you have shared. sending them to another wallet which they control.
Example of a private key: N2nGYRCBbs6ZRs8w5LHam4r85ikxBzhRNgpNJjqk7D5vrpuaVJB
Example of a public key: 958ikZuaAbGkzXuFL9sfGHYj9ethop8qMh
How Does a Cryptocurrency Wallet Work?
Cryptocurrency wallets work like the safety deposit boxes. Unlike traditional pocket wallets, where they don’t store digital currency. The crypto wallets store your private and public keys and interface with multiple blockchains. Thus, users can track their balance, send money and conduct other operations.
Moreover, currencies don’t get stored in any single place. Also, it is advised not to store the cryptocurrencies on the wallet offered by the particular exchange, because the exchange will own your private key. So better you transfer it to your own crypto wallet to have control over the cryptocurrencies owned by you.
A wallet address is the same as a bank account number. Providing your bank account number to other people, as they need it to transfer your funds. For example: This is like your friend transferring you money, so he needs your bank account number.
In the world of cryptocurrency, if anyone wants to transfer you crypto coins, you should provide him with your wallet address. Similar, like in the real world, however, no two wallets can have the same address, which means that there is no risk of your fund being to transfer to others address. Moreover, there is no limit to the 5number of wallet addresses you create.
Different Types of Crypto Wallets
There are multiple types of wallets that provide different ways to store and access your digital currency.
Hot Wallets vs Cold Wallets
you might come across frequently with the terms “hot wallets” and “cold wallets”. All crypto wallets fall under these two types.
In general, whatever is connected to the internet is less secure than something that is not. This is the difference, where “hot” wallets are connected to the internet and “cold” wallets” are not.
Online, desktop and mobile wallets are hot wallets, while hardware and paper wallets are cold wallets.
1). Software Wallet:
There are three forms of software wallets:
Desktop wallets: These are installed on a laptop or a PC, and can be accessed from a single computer. Although they provide high security, if the computer is attacked by the virus, there is a chance of losing your wallet.
Online wallets: These wallets run on the cloud and can be accessed from any device. Here, your keys are stored online.
Mobile wallets: These wallets that run on an application in a smartphone; they are simpler than the desktop wallets and can be used anywhere.
2). Full Node Wallet:
Here you can control your private keys and provide a full copy of the blockchain. Essentially every coin has an official wallet of this type and that can be found on the official GitHub of the site. “Official” means endorsed by the developers who created the coin.” Many cryptos are decentralized, so there is no real official anything.
3). Coin-Specific:
A wallet which works only with a specific coin.
4). Network-Specific:
A wallet which can hold multiple tokens on a single network.
5). Hardware Wallet:
These type of hardware are specifically built to hold cryptocurrency and keep it safe. This includes USB devices. Moreover, these devices can go online to make transactions and get data and then can be taken offline for transportation and security.
6). Paper Wallet:
This type of wallet lets you to both send and receive digital currency using a paper wallet. You can take a print of your QR code for both a private and public key. With this feature, you can completely avoid storing digital information about your currency by using a paper wallet.
7). Custodial Wallet:
In Custodial wallet, you can’t control your keys directly. Most exchange wallets are custodial wallets.
8). Multisignature Wallet:
It requires multiple parties to sign a transaction for any digital money to be spent. Multisignature wallets are designed to have more layer of security.
How To Choose a Wallet?
Here are some ideas on how to choose the best wallet for you.Hardware and paper wallets are the best to secure funds. Also, We always suggest official or officially endorsed wallet for any given coin.
Ledger Nano S: Multi-currency support, Built-in Display, Easy to operate, Security, Backup and restoration.
Ledger Blue: Malware proof, Multiple currencies, Secure elements.
Jaxx: Exclusive design, Easy to use, Personalized key, available on multiple OS.
Edge wallets: Security, Multi-Currency Support, Easy to use.
Exodus : Multi-currencies, Complete security, Great design, Multi-currencies.
Coinpayment: Bit-go integrated, Online store acceptable, vault, multi-coin wallet.
Most top performing wallets are (Binance, Coinbase, etc.) and they have exchanges too that offers for easy and quick trading between Bitcoin and other crypto or bitcoin and fiat currencies.
Online wallets are prone to security hack and therefore should be used as little as possible. It will be safe to divide your funds among the different types of wallets.
How to Register in a Wallet?
If you are a newbie to the crypto world, then read these points before proceeding:
Download the official wallet from the website.
Register for a custodial wallet service ‘Coinbase’ or non-custodial wallet service like ‘Blockchain’ Wallet (which handles both wallet and exchange with one account).
Purchase a hardware wallet like TREZOR for storage.
Use a universal software wallet or any other wallet that meet your needs like the ones mentioned above.
Coinbase and TREZOR are one of the good major choices, since, they have guides and can be kept safe with the best execution, and also, don’t need to download the full blockchain for a coin.
If you want to know more about particular wallets, Visit our crypto wallet section, you can enjoy reviews on many crypto wallets.
The post Crypto Wallet Guide appeared first on Cryptocurrency information | Cryptocurrency News | Bitcoin News and Crypto Guide.
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⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 03 - June 10 ⚜️

⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM June 03 - June 10 ⚜️

https://preview.redd.it/qv831skd7j331.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b852d641a25dea593db6fb3a6155ff7c865e4e46

Good day, dear clients! 👋🏼👩🏼

The cryptocurrency market continues to make us happy with movements.
This week we saw a correction to the uptrend
The market leaders this time showed a slightly worse yield.
But the Altcoins are still volatile and bring good profits.

💰 Yield for 03.06 - 10.06:

▫️ Bitcoin - 0,92 %
▫️ Ethereum - 1,23 %
▫️ Ripple - 1,22 %
▫️ Neo - 1,68 %

With Respect,
Team Arbitrage-Systems ♥️


#arbitrage #cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #btc #ethereum #eth#binance #bnb #eos #neo#bitfinex#huobi #bitmex
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⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM May 27 - June 03 ⚜️

⚜️ REPORT ON ARBITRAGE BOT PROFIT FROM May 27 - June 03 ⚜️

https://preview.redd.it/zfbza12fy5231.png?width=678&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f34cadae4890eee30e1b3b51e86a12e04140480

Good day, dear clients! 👋🏼👩🏼

The cryptocurrency market still very volatile.
Despite some corrective, the uptrend continues.
Last week, neo took the lead in arbitrage trade yields.

💰 Yield for 27.05 - 03.06:

▫️ Bitcoin - 0,92 %
▫️ Ethereum - 1,23 %
▫️ Ripple - 1,22 %
▫️ Neo - 1,68 %

With Respect,
Team Arbitrage-Systems ♥️

#arbitrage #cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #btc #ethereum #eth#binance #bnb #eos #neo #bitfinex#huobi #bitmex
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⚜️ ARBITRAGE REPORT FROM February 25 - March 04 ⚜️

⚜️ ARBITRAGE REPORT FROM February 25 - March 04 ⚜️

https://preview.redd.it/mrunqwgpp3k21.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=09e2d53ffb21146f34506e1afc52b65632240a64
Good day, dear clients! 👋🏼👩🏼

After a sharp move at the end of last week, this week the market shows low dynamics
For almost the entire week, the price of all cryptocoins was in a narrow flat.
And only yesterday there was some movement. And today it has increased

Yield for 25.02 - 04.03:

▫️Bitcoin - 0,70 %
▫️Ethereum - 0,69 %
▫️Ripple - 0,78 %
▫️Neo - 0,64%

With Respect, Team Arbitrage-Systems ♥️
#arbitrage #cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #btc #ethereum #eth#binance #bnb #eos #neo #bitfinex #huobi #bitmex
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General info and list of exchanges for FansTime (FTI)

Ecosystem Individual IP Value System
If currency no longer represents the amount of work per unit of time, then what can measure the value of talent? FansTime believes that only fans can do it. IFS, the TOKEN generated on iFans Chain parent chain will become the only object to price an Individual IP so as to solve the pricing, financing, derivative development and assetization. Gradually, a decentralized multilateral market can be built then the value of Individual IP can be cherished fairly.Based on the new logic of communication, changing from domain addressing to content addressing, FansTime will promote the establishment of a truly worldwide content distribution system and copyright identification system together with other technology enterprises which focus on the fundamental technical advances in the Blockchain area. International Crowdfunding Platform for Individual IP
FansTime will also provide an international crowdfunding platform for IFS holders in addition to continuously connecting the terminal consumption scenarios to the Ecosystem. Compared to the traditional crowdfunding platforms, the new ones will operate independently without man-mad interferences, thanks to the Smart Contracts and Decentralized&Distributed Databases. In this case, "code equals to law" would be truly realized at least in the process of profits allocation between investors. Global Membership Rewards System of Individual IP
Based on distributed data storage, asymmetric encryption, peer-to-peer networking and other Blockchain related technologies, a global membership rewards system may be realized. The problems such as identity certification, unfair treatment, poor flexibility of databases will be solved. Application Scenarios Time Exchange
As the number of users increasing and the depth of user engagement enhacing,there will be a huge amount of demand for individual IPs. So FansTime will launch an equivalent object as Exclusive Token in order to simplify the process of issuing and auditing. Time,the equivalent object,provides a more flexible assetization channel which can attract much more Individual IPs with potentials.Time Exchange will work with Exclusive Token Exchange in parallel, thus enriching the value system. Fans Rights Mall
It is one of the terminal consumption applications in FansTime ecosystem. With the development of the community, terminal consumption scenarios will increase greatly. Commodities in Fans Rights Mall covers traditional copyright commodities, tickets for offline activities , weaker-copyright digital contents. According to different status of Individual IPs, the comodities can be priced by IFS, Exclusive Token or Time. Exclusive Token Exchange
With the Smart Contract of the FansTime parent Chain (iFans Chain), Individual IP can issue its own Exclusive Token, which is used to anchor its own IP value. Fans can obtain investment returns by holding and selling the Exclusive Token of Individual IP, directly participating in the process of Individual IP increasing. In this case, problems of pricing, transaction and assetization can be solved. FansTime will introduce high quality Individual IPs and more demanders of segment markets into the community as to expand the scope of Exclusive Token using. Management Team Martae Honorably,Miss Apinya Pramoj(More)
Honorary Chairman Eric Jiang(More)
CEO TETSUYA SHIN(More)
RD Department Head Ting SHE(More)
Marketing Department Head Terry Wu(More)
Finance Department Head Investment Institution
With a globalization strategy, ChinaEquity Group (CEG) focuses on investment in High-tech and Culture&Entertainment industries. CEG was co-founded by Wang Chaoyong, returned American investment banker and Chief Representative of Morgan Stanley Beijing Office, together with Swiss investors. Mr. Wang is hailed as Investment Godfather and he is one of the first overseas Chinese students working in the Wall Street investment and financing community.
Leading domestic non-public online equity investment platform. 36 Kr is a mainstream, prestigious and influential new business media and its parent company is now the largest service platform for the 'Entrepreneurship and Innovation Initiatives’ in China.
Chen Shu, the founding initiator of NEXT, is the initiator of Wenzhou Financial Management Association and co-founder of W Youth Capital. NEXT has now accomplished its initial operations in blockchain-related fields, concerning TMT, cloud computing, big data, AI, financial technology, etc.
Qianhai M&A Funds, with the powerful support of Qianhai Equity Exchange shareholders, specializes in 7 sectors of high-tech investments, including culture and education, internet, IT, industrial automation, healthcare, environmental protection, national defense conversion to civil use.
iFensi is the most professional fans operation and service platform, ranking top on Alexa Chinese entertainment website. It secured RMB 150 million in B- Round Financing in 2017 and was valued at RMB 1 billion, a record high in fan economy financing.
A frontier investor in blockchain technology co-founded by the core team of Waltonchain and business circles and pevcnews, committed to offering support to teams with industrial expertise and connections as well as understandings and visions on blockchain.
A venture capital firm dedicated in blockchain and one of the earliest professional investment companies laying hands on blockchain. Node capital is to connect nodes existing in blockchain ecology and integrate sector resources through investment projects and cooperation, thus construct eco-system of the industry and carry forward steady and healthy development of blockchain.
Ainvestment arm under huoxun.com, was established by several top blockchain experts.
Tsing Capital, specializing in risk investment in block chain industry, is a professional investment institution, the earliest one established in the world for linking and hatching young leaders' new technology projects.
United Cultural Works Exchanges is the largest and most influential film and television derivative exchange platform and the only government-approved cultural art works equity exchange platform in Liaoning Province, China. United CulturalWorks Exchanges has worked with Chunqiu Time, H&R Century Pictures, Alibaba Pictures, Huayi Brothers Media Group and other top IP creators to publish over 50 pieces of derivative works, business turnover exceeding RMB 50 billion in 2016.
Xiang Chain Fund of Funds (XCF), the first Fund of Funds (FOF) of blockchain industry in Hunan province, was jointly established by Cheng Guihua, a founding member of the China Young Angel Investor Leader Association and Wang Xiaoye, an executive director of the China Young Angel Investor Leader Association. XCF has invested many projects including the following: EGCC, Extrade, Rcash, etc. It maintains a highly cooperative relationship with well-known blockchain investment institutions, and has a high degree of integration of the head resources of the entire blockchain industry. At the same time, XCF provides high-quality blockchain industry projects with consulting services of one-stop investment and financing, helping accelerate the development of excellent projects in blockchain infrastructure and commercial applications.
DFUND was founded by Zhao Dong, a well-known person in digital currency field, in July 2017, specializing in the investment in the field, and supplying the invested project with end-to-end investment bank services. It sticks to the principle of value investment, which is judged and screened by professional team. It has impressive earnings in its early open-ended fund. Till January 2018, the net earnings of Bitcoin in the first phase project of DFUND is 620%, or 2543% in U.S. currency. The major investment projects are TNB、QASH、aelf、Cybermiles、LLT、MobileCoin、Beechat, etc.
Genesis, a blockchain-oriented professional investment bank and venture capital institution, was found by Zhu Huaiyang and Sun Zeyu in 2017, engaging in finding the top quality blockchain projects and providing long-term comprehensive assistance. The major investment projects are Deep Brain Chain(DBC)、IOS、AELF、JEX、Game.com、ProChain、Acute Angle Cloud, etc.
Link Capital, founded by Lin Jiapeng, a senior investment expert in blockchain field, is an investment institution specializing in the sectors of blockchain project, digital currency and network finance, used to invest in lots of quality blockchain projects home and abroad. It has established offices in Singapore, Canada, and China’s Hong Kong and Shenzhen.
HS Capital has sharp acumen in blockchain industry, unique insight and control over projects, and energizes invested project with community energy.
Ju Capital under the Jubi Group, is a venture capital company concentrating on blockchain industry, as well as one of the professional investment institutions early involving in blockchain industry. Ju Capital is aimed at bringing most potential blockchian projects to frontier markets through project investment and cooperation. Over years, Ju Capital has been implementing influential blockchain projects worldwide by supplying end-to-end professional team services, sticking to the principles of dedicating and professional investments, and upholding the concepts of vale investment and deep guidance.
Stars Capital, founded by Mr. Liu Jingchao in 2017, is a venture capital company specializing in blockchain industry, and one of the profession investment institutions early involving in the blockchain industrial ecology in the global context. It sets its purpose on integrating industrial resources, building industrial ecological circle, and fueling the healthy and stable development of blockchain industry through the way of project investment and cooperation. Mr. Liu Jingchao is also the founder of Bijiu.com and Binvestment, as well as an accomplished expert in blockchain industry.
Trueway Capital is a professional investment institution focusing on the blockchain sector, engaging in building ecological layout in the fields of mineral pool, transaction platform, technical media, technology application, etc. It is now devoting itself to the technology innovation and development of blockchain by investing in and incubating excellent venture teams in blockchain sector.Investment cases: CyberMiles(CMT)、JEX、Coindom(CCC)、OneRoot(RNT)、GIFTO、Zipper OS、TopChain(TOPC)、Game.com(GTC)、RenRen、Nebulas(NAS)、BAIC、TrueChain、QUNQUN、WaykiChain 、HotChain(HOTC)、TokenClub、All Sport(SOC)、ARMADA MINER(AMUT)
Lemi Capital is a venture capital company focusing on the investment in global blockchain sector in its early and growing stages, and is one of the earliest professional investment institutions making layout for creating blockchain industrial ecology worldwide. Lemi Capital’s target lies in, by means of project investment and cooperation, fueling rapid rising of new technology and high-value projects, linking the nodes on blockchain industrial ecology, integrating industrial recourses, building industrial ecosystem so as to better release the potentials of blockchain technology in its coming development and application, and promoting the healthy and steady development of blockchain industry.
Gama Capital is a type of blockchain industrial fund established at the beginning 2018. Its capital investment portfolio covers all developing stages of blockchain industry, vertical industries, regions and commercial modes, including tracks such as basic chain, Internet of things, supply chain, cross-border remittance, traceability, enterprise level application, etc. Our concept is to realize linking in the global blockchain ecosphere by laying out the blockchain enterprises worldwide. Gama Capital has established a most professional globalized investment team in the industry, which is composed of lots of investment managers and industrial analysts equipped with long-term experiences working at large-scale international investment management institutions. The blockchain projects invested by the partners of Gama Capital are PNT, Quantum, VeChain, ABT, EOS, FSN, etc., achieving dozens of times of return on investment on the whole.
Trichain Capital is a comprehensive and professional venture capital focus on blockchain industry and digital asset investment banking. Trichain Capital is driven by capital, industry and technology, and is committed to becoming the best partner of the global blockchain entrepreneur.
Shuanghua Capital is a new prominent fund focusing on blockchain industry, which registered in Cayman Islands. The scope of investment includes crypto currency, smart contract, oracle, decentralized storage, decentralized database, cross chain trading, consortium blockchain, etc.
SMWM is a professional Venture Capital focusing on BlockChain and Fintech, which is committed to finding excellent project and accelerating their development。 Our team are from Tsinghua University, Peking University and overseas returnees, who have wide experience in BlockChain industry , professional research capacity and keen insight into the future development of BlockChain. SMWM has abundant resources about institution investor, talent and capital market, and has general investment layout in Blockchain industry. Hence, SMWM can provide all-round and systematic post-investment service, and has had some successful cases yet.
Tsinghua Alumni Fintech Capital is an investment firm that exclusively invests in companies related to blockchain technology and Fintech. Our fund has an innovative operating model--we connect campus with capital and combinator to help entrepreneurs get starting fund, connections, coaching and professional consulting. Tsinghua Alumni Fintech Capital collaborates closely with funds including Zhen Fund, Aplus Capital, Plum Ventures, Skysaga Capital, Legend Star, Future Capital, Tusstar, Flyfot Ventures, Collinstar Capital, Taiyou Fund and Innoangel Fund to accelerate the development of the industry through investing in the whole industrial chain and integrating resources. Our goal is to empower the whole industry, so we make investments with high quality standard. We endeavor to find companies with the potential to become the industry leaders and help them succeed with our resources. With the resources of Tsinghua University and its alumni, we keep excellent cooperative relations with Tsinghua related funds, Tsinghua Alumni TMT Association, Tsinghua Holdings and Tsinghua Tongfang. Also, we stay closely cooperative relations with our advisor—Digital Currency Lab of Central Bank. With an estimated $100 Million AUM, we help our portfolio companies to achieve higher goals by offering funding support, deploying resources and providing professional advices. Our portfolio includes KyberNetwork, Tezos, NEO, Bluzelle, aelf, Icon, EOS, 0x, Trinity, Zilliqa, Gifto and Qash.
Crypto Vision Capita Limited focuses in investing crypto currency, since founded in BVI, Crypto Vision Capital has invested in several famous and successful ICO, obtained supernormal returns. Main members graduated from top universities all over the world, possessing rich investment experience in both primary and secondary markets. AUM is around 1 billion yuan.
LD Capital is one of Asia's earliest organizations focusing on value investing in blockchain field. Owing to industrial resource advantages and professional investment research teams, LD Capital has successively discovered and invested in projects such as Qtum, Vechain and Eos which all achieved over 100 times return. Our teams spread over China, the United States, Europe, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea, and have accumulated rich experience in areas of traditional internet, Fintech, and advanced blockchain technology. We are committed to the globalization of blockchain and quality investment in the entire industry. LD Capital focuses on blockchain innovation projects within finance, games, content publishing, Internet of Things and other circuits, and we have been propelling broad layout of blockchain technology and infrastructure construction to facilitate the comprehensive development of the global blockchain ecosystem.
BN Capital is a new type of investment banking and investment institution focusing on the blockchain sector. We provide high quality investment services for blockchain projects with professional knowledge and continue to tap quality blockchain investment targets.
The Great Voyage Capital, set up by NewBorn Town and Plum Ventures, is the first investing fund focusing on the overseas mobile market in China. NewBorn Town is a mobile company whose product portfolio has over 1 billion oversea users and Plum Ventures is a professional vertical internet Venture Capital. The purpose of the Great Voyage Capital is to discover the valuable early stage projects and teams in China who have strong wish to expand oversea markets and have the capacity and potential to enlarge the Great Voyage Capital investment portfolio. By joining the Great Voyage Capital, one could get support from end to end like capital injection, resource sharing, mentor guidance and post-investment management (lawyer, job hunter, media coverage and so on).
FROM INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT CO.,LTD is a capital management company registered in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our main business is providing investment advice and investment management in the blockchain and cryptocurrency industry. Road Map Media Report
In order to solve the existing problems in the fan economy for a long time, such as centralization-based value system, unhealthy market environment, exploitation of intermediary agents , limited channels of commercialization, we will establish a global decentralized ecosystem to reconstruct the industry market environment including value and credit mechanism.
EXCHANGE LIST
Kucoin
Binance
Bit-Z
Bibox
Linkcoin
Qryptos
Bitrue
Bilaxy
Bitpaction
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General info and list of exchanges for Karatgold Coin (KBC)

* Brand
ROADMAP DETAILS OUR TEAM BLOG 
THE KARATGOLD COIN (KBC)
is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency
specifically designed to be used as a generally accepted electronic payment means for all who consider gold as a traditional, true, secure and value-stable medium.
READ OUR AUDITWHITEPAPER KARATGOLD KARATGOLD Karatgold Coin (KBC) ICO rating Karatgold Coin (KBC) ICO rating KARATGOLD IS LISTED ON
KARATGOLD IS LISTED ON
Already has a WORKING PRODUCT
120 Countries
500,000 Customers
120 MLN EUR Total Investment
The desire of gold is not for gold It is for the means of freedom and benefit
Ralph Waldo Emerson AS SEEN ON...
AS SEEN ON... DEVELOPMENT PLAN
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
August 2018
With our in-house wallet, you can use the gold-covered payment system as easily as the other benefits, such as the transfer of real gold without banks or other intermediaries.
September 2018
Preparations for our own crypto exchange are in full swing. With our in-house Exchange, you can take advantage of all the benefits you expect from an advanced crypto exchange, adding the important factor of exceptional geographic and cultural closeness. Here you and your wishes are understood very well.
October 2018
Use the benefits of KBC and other KaratCoin banking services whenever you want, wherever you want: With our own app, this is easily possible. This app is available for iOS and Android.
Through 2018
Listing of Coin on further major exchanges. Number of acceptance partners increase to 20. Market capitalization: USD 80 million
Until 2020
2% market penetration. Market capitalization: USD 500 million THE PROBLEM
THE PROBLEM
In former times, gold was a direct payments means, particularly in the form of gold coins.
However, Gold has continuously been replaced by bank notes, which nowadays are not, or only to a marginal percentage, backed by state-owned gold. Therefore, the value of the bank notes issued by the different countries rely on the trust that the respective country is able to pay its bills. Only this is less sure than in former times. Especially in less developed countries, the trustworthiness of legal tender moves towards zero. THE SOLUTION
THE SOLUTION
The Coin perfectly meets worldwide needs because it is based on gold. Each coin represents a certain weight of gold and can at all times be exchanged into physical gold in the form of CashGold.
Furthermore, it can be exchanged for all fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies worldwide.
Exchangeable
Borderless
Value-Stable
Based on Gold
The Coin is cryptonized gold that can be transferred borderlessly, cost efficiently, securely and in real-time.
Its value is predictable because the value of gold has a long tradition and everybody has an idea about its stability. Therefore, the Coin has the ability to become generally accepted worldwide. DETAILS ABOUT KARATBARS
DETAILS ABOUT KARATBARS
The international distribution partner
Currently, more than 500,000 customers from more than 120 countries have already bought smallest gold bars from Karatbars GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany.
The total investment of these customers amounts to nearly EUR 120 million. It is therefore obvious that with this customer basis, the Coin will achieve a high market capitalization: it will write a success story.
It is designed to be used as a generally accepted electronic payment
For all who consider gold as a traditional, true, secure and value-stable medium
Each coin represents a certain weight of gold
Can at all times be exchanged into physical gold in the form of CashGold
Can be exchanged for all fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies worldwide
BANK INDEPENDENCE
COST EFFICIENT
PREDICTABLE VALUE
CRISIS-PROOF
VISION
To become a general accepted payment means by consumers as well as merchants and servicers
MISSION
To provide a payment system that is safe, private, and easy to use for the purchase of goods and services
EXECUTION
More than 500,000 customers from more than 120 countries. Investment amounts to nearly EUR 120 million EXCHANGES WE ARE CONTACTING
EXCHANGES WE ARE CONTACTING BUY OUR PRODUCTS
BUY OUR PRODUCTS
Bronze Card
Silber Card
Gold Card
VIP Card DETAILS ABOUT THE COIN
DETAILS ABOUT THE COIN
The «Coin» is based on the Ethereum blockchain protocol
Therefore, it is safe, cost-efficient and fast. Furthermore, it allows to use smart contracts within its protocol. Token name Karatgold Coin Ticker Symbol KBC Currency Symbol Current Price 1 KBC for USD 1.32$See Audit Maximum KBC produced 12 Billion (technical limit) Maximum KBC for sale 7.2 billion Fundraising Goal $ 72 million Minimum Purchase 1,000 Coins Payment methods Bitcoin, ETH and Karatpay payments
ICO WHITEPAPER WHITEPAPER AUDIT VALUATION SMART CONTRACT
SMART CONTRACT VIEW ON GITHUB SMART CONTRACT AUDIT THE ADVANTAGES OF THE KARATGOLD COIN
THE ADVANTAGES OF THE KARATGOLD COIN
Borderless: Exchangeable into CashGold at any time Fast: Facilitation of real-time payments anywhere and anytime Free and borderless transferable Immediate large number of points of acceptance Low fees payable by merchants for the use of the Coin and the Ecosystem 
WHY A GROWING DEMAND FOR COIN?
WHY A GROWING DEMAND FOR COIN?
The value of the Coin is expected to strongly increase. The market capitalization of the Coin will reflect the billion Euro business that will rely on gold and the gold price based on the CashGold.
The global acceptance and recognition of gold as a safe and secure harbor will make the Coin and the CashGold one of the leading payment means worldwide. Therefore, holders of Coin will not only enjoy protection against inflation and vague governments and economies, but also have the opportunity to participate in the value increase which will be achieved in the future. Such value increase can be realized by everybody through the sale of the Coin, or through the purchase of goods and services.
The Coins will be available on major cryptocurrency exchange platforms such as Poloniex, Bithumb, Bitfinex, Bittrex, etc. The coins will be permitted to float and be traded p2p. The price of the Coin will be determined by market forces and cryptocurrency exchange mechanisms, as well as by the global gold prices. The value of the Coin will reflect the degree of penetration of the worldwide payment systems and, to a substantial extent, the price development of pure gold. The more Coin will be used – thus driving customer adoption – the greater the demand for the Coin will be. The popularity of the Coin and the Ecosystems will most probably grow very fast. Buy Tokens now SAFE. SECURE. CASHGOLD.
SAFE. SECURE. CASHGOLD.
Gold, in the form of gold coins and gold bullions, has served as international payment means as well as solid investments for more than 4,000 years. Although legal currencies presently are not backed by gold, gold reserves still serve many central banks in the world as a currency reserve.
Private and institutional investors invest in gold. In times of economic crises, gold is deemed to be a stable investment with the potential to a value increase in comparison to other investments.
The intrinsic value of gold is caused by its relative rarity as well as by the high cost of mining. This may also be the reason why investments in gold, unlike e.g. investments in interest-bearing securities, do not have default risk.
However, gold coins are not used for payment anymore, and it is not feasible or practical to hold and pay with gold in the traditional form.
The new alternative is the CashGold. It is reliable, globally available, secure, practical in use, and compatible with other payment means.
The idea behind CashGold is to implement small gold bars on a specific paper which partially looks like a bank note. However, instead of mentioning a specific currency amount, the weight of the implemented gold bar is displayed. ABOUT THE VISIONAIR
ABOUT THE VISIONAIR
Harald Seiz was born in 1963 in Calw near Stuttgart, Germany and has been successfully working as a financial consultant since 1982. In 2011 he founded the Karatbars International GmbH in Stuttgart, of which he is the managing director. Since then he has consistently and successfully internationalized the business.
In 2016, he was awarded the Senatorial Degree by the Federal. Association for Economic Development and Foreign Trade (BWA).
He is also the author of the successful book 'The Future of Money', published in 2017 and available everywhere.
In his book he outlines the history of money and the methods of payment; describes what factors are dependent on trust in money and hard cash; how these factors influence the economic and monetary policy frameworks, where the risks of the past and present payment methods and systems lie. He also introduces a few (for some of us possibly exotic) methods of payment and tries to answer the question of what would happen in the case of an IT blackout or cyber-attack – and how we would be able to get by and pay for the essentials – for example, in the form of gold and crypto currencies. The book's jacket text: Never before in times of peace has the subject of money evoked the uncertainty it does today. Although, we live in affluence here in Germany, many people begin to ask themselves whether the value of our money is dwindling away. Cash seems permanently under attack as the media bombards us with theories on the 'End of Cash'.
Concerns about the future of money are not without basis: in many countries, massive restrictions on the use of cash have now become a reality, with India at the forefront. Overnight, 86 percent of their rupee reserves were removed from circulation and declared worthless - is cash in the euro zone next?
What is the future of money - a means of exchange, anonymous payment or an opportunity to hoard wealth? How will we pay in the future? What forms will digitization open up to us? And what forms could be forced on us by the state or circumstances, such as a crisis or catastrophe? Are you prepared if ATMs or online banking no longer function?
Publisher: FinanzBuch Verlag (2017) ISBN-10: 3959720823 ISBN-13: 978-3959720823 THE MANAGEMENT TEAM
THE MANAGEMENT TEAM
Thomas Valet
Head of Marketing & Sales European Financial Consultant 
Andreas Zipperle
Chief Operating Officer German Economic Council 
THE ADVISORY TEAM
THE ADVISORY TEAM
MyICOAgency
Leading TOKEN SALE Consulting Agency founded by professionals with backgrounds in blockchain, investing, PR, and marketing. myicoagency.de 
CPI Technologies GmbH
CPI Technologies GmbH is a leading software company for high scalable finance software solutions and blockchain infrastructure. cpitech.io 
Harald Plewka
Legal Advisor 
Jeannette Franz
Head of Support & Communications at Karatbars International GmbH 
Nina Rezec
Managing Director Karatbars International Dubai 
Ronald Stephan
Head of Public Relations 
Susanna Epli
Project Management Consultant Sales Management Consultant 
Ute Sailer
Senior Sales Coordinator Photovoltaic and Real Estate, InnPro GmbH 
Uwe Heller
Founder & COO InnPro GmbH Renewable Energies 
Andreas Houf
Master Consultant in Finance 
Dirc Zahlmann
Director of International Operations 
HONG KONG HEADQUARTER
HONG KONG HEADQUARTER
Wilson Cheung
Managing Director Hongkong Headquarter 
Heidi Cheung
Marketing Executive Nick Wang Technology Limited 
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Monero - XMR/BTC Arbitrage Ops - 01/21/18 1:28 AM EST

The following XMBTC arbitrage ops have been found:
Buy Monero low at:
Sell it high at:
Exchange links can be found in the sidebar.
Data provided for informational use only. Not to be taken as investment advice. Readers are advised to do their own due diligence before investing in any cryptocurrency.
Like this post? Spread the word! Tips also appreciated - I'm still trying to pay for repairs to my house from hurricane Irma:
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ZCash - ZEC/BTC Arbitrage Ops - 01/21/18 1:08 AM EST

The following ZEC/BTC arbitrage ops have been found:
Buy ZCash low at:
Sell it high at:
Exchange links can be found in the sidebar.
Data provided for informational use only. Not to be taken as investment advice. Readers are advised to do their own due diligence before investing in any cryptocurrency.
Like this post? Spread the word! Tips also appreciated - I'm still trying to pay for repairs to my house from hurricane Irma:
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